TRT or androgen replacement therapy (ART) is a treatment that doctors give to males who have been diagnosed with testosterone deficiency.

Testosterone plays a vital role in a range of bodily functions, including muscle and bone health, cognition, red blood cell, and sperm formation, and sexual and reproductive function in males.

Testosterone levels can decline for various reasons, including stress, aging, trauma, and infections.

This article discusses TRT in more detail, including who it is for, the types, how it works, how to get it, what to expect from it, and more.

What is testosterone replacement therapy?

TRT or androgen replacement therapy (ART) is a treatment that doctors give to males who have testosterone deficiency and are showing symptoms of hypogonadism.

Taking prescription testosterone helps restore the levels of this hormone in the blood, reversing the symptoms of low testosterone. People who take it may notice improvements in alertness, sexual function, energy, mood, and overall well-being.

Who is a testosterone replacement therapy for, and how does it work?

Doctors prescribe TRT to males with hypogonadism. To receive a definitive diagnosis, blood tests must show that a person has low testosterone levels, which the American Urological Association notes as being below 300 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl). The individual must also have other symptoms, such as fatigue, breast growth, and sexual dysfunction.

However, doctors do not usually recommend TRT as the first course of action for low testosterone levels, even for males who show such symptoms.

If other conditions or medications cause testosterone levels to drop, doctors usually treat the underlying condition before recommending TRT.

Benefits of TRT

According to a 2019 study, TRT can improve sexual function, including:

  • libido
  • symptoms of erectile dysfunction
  • sexual satisfaction

Further 2019 research suggests that TRT can also maintain bone density, with a 2016 study also revealing TRT’s improvement of cognitive function and attention span.

How to get TRT

TRT is only available with a prescription. If a person presents with symptoms consistent with low testosterone levels, a doctor will only provide a prescription after taking a thorough medical history and performing physical and lab exams.

As hormone levels fluctuate depending on activity levels, diet, and the time of day, doctors usually take two different blood samples before noon. They may sometimes also ask for imaging studies and additional tests, such as tests for luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulation hormone, to determine the cause of the low testosterone levels.

Types of testosterone treatments

There are several ways to administer testosterone:


Injectable testosterone is an inexpensive and common form of TRT. A person can receive short-acting treatment, which involves a shot every 1 or 2 weeks, or long-acting treatment, in which the second shot is 4 weeks after the first, and all others are 10 weeks apart. The dosage and frequency of the treatment may vary depending on the person.

Doctors inject short-acting testosterone under the skin or into the muscle, while long-acting shots go into the gluteal muscles.

TRT can cause fluctuations in testosterone levels, which can affect energy levels, libido, mood, and the presence of symptoms such as breast tenderness.

Topical (transdermal)

People usually apply gels and creams on a daily basis. Gradual absorption causes more stable testosterone levels in the blood.

However, people using topical treatments must be careful to avoid skin-on-skin contact with other people for at least 6 hours after application. It is important to prevent the risk of transferring the medication onto other people’s skin because it may be dangerous for pregnant women and children.

Low T in men

Topical patches stick to the skin and stay in place for 24 hours until the next dose. They typically come in doses of between 2 milligrams (mg) and 5 mg. The downsides to patches are that they are not cosmetically appealing and often cause skin irritations. In comparison with oral medications, topical patches may prove less toxic to the liver.

Topical gel dosage is usually between 40–100 mg per day but this will vary between products. A person should start at the lowest recommended dose and increase gradually, if necessary.

Cheek or buccal patches

A person places a buccal patch above the upper teeth, and it releases testosterone over 12 hours. These patches usually contain 30 mg. A person should apply them twice each day, around 12 hours apart. However, they can cause headaches and gum and mouth irritation.

Testosterone implants or pellets

Testosterone pellets are small plastic pellets that doctors implant under the skin. The implant goes into a person’s upper hip or buttock. The pellets dissolve slowly and can deliver TRT for 3–6 months. The dosage varies between individuals and a person should discuss this with their doctor prior to the first implantation.

Inserting implants is a minor inpatient surgical procedure. A doctor makes a small incision in the fatty tissue below the skin to insert the pellets. They perform the procedure under local anesthesia.

Oral testosterone

Oral testosterone is a less common type of TRT that is more expensive and less practical. Its long-term use can potentially cause liver damage.

Most tablets also come with warnings about the drug causing hypertension and stroke. As a result, only individuals who cannot use other forms of TRT resort to taking testosterone by mouth.

A doctor will recommend a Dosage ranging from 225–396 mg, and a person will typically take oral testosterone tablets twice daily.


A person applies nasal testosterone gel to the inside of the nose. They will need to do this three times a day at intervals of 6–8 hours, preferably at the same times every day. Dosage is usually 11 mg per application across both nostrils, resulting in a total dosage of 33 mg daily.

Some common reactions to this treatment include headaches, nosebleeds, a runny nose, and nasal discomfort.

What to expect

TRT aims to restore a person’s testosterone levels to normal. The individual can expect improvements in their blood testosterone levels within a week, however, symptoms may take longer to improve.

A person may also note other benefits, such as an increase in bone density and lean body mass, an improvement in well-being, and a boost to energy and libido. It may take from 4 weeks to several months to see positive changes.

Unless caused by medical illness, TRT is typically a lifelong treatment. Once a person starts TRT, their doctor will continually monitor their response to treatment. People need to have routine checkups at least every 6–12 months to assess their blood testosterone levels.

A doctor will also monitor changes in symptoms and side effects at 3 and 6 months after the initial treatment and then annually.

Approximate costs

TRT costs range from $150 to $1,500 per month and vary depending on various factors, including:

  • type of medication
  • dosage
  • mode of administration
  • insurance coverage
  • doctor and laboratory fees

Is it safe?

In addition to the possible short-term side effects, TRT may also cause health risks. The Endocrine Society recommends that people with the following conditions do not start using TRT:

  • breast cancer or prostate cancer
  • presence of prostate nodules or induration
  • high prostate-specific antigen levels
  • elevated hematocrit levels
  • untreated and severe sleep apnea
  • severe lower urinary tract symptoms
  • congestive heart failure
  • recent stroke or heart attack
  • thrombophilia

It also states that the treatment is unsuitable for males who wish to conceive in the near future.

Males aged 40 years older, preadolescent people, and those with migraine or epilepsy may require special considerations.

For additional concerns please be sure to ask your questions to our qualified team of experts.